The philosophy of criminalizing attacks on religious values and symbols


  • M.D. Hassan Sadiq Abboud Al-Ajili . College of Law, Al-Nahrain University


- values. - symbols. - aggression. - criminalization philosophy. - interest.


Society carries within it many concepts that legislators, especially within the penal laws, have sought to protect, and among these concepts are religious values and symbols, as this concept (religious values and symbols) is one of the concepts that the legislator has surrounded with penal protection from assault, and the concept of religious values and symbols is embodied in the idea They are embraced by groups of people or an opinion, whether these ideas are a goal in themselves or merely an expression of behavior. The benefit of protecting these values and symbols is embodied in their being one of the pillars of social security in the state, which in reality represents the moral aspect of the general system of any society. The scope of criminal protection for religious values and symbols includes preventing violations that would affect the religious feeling of the final outcome. The scope of criminal protection culminates in preventing acts of infringement on religious values and symbols, as the reason for criminalization and the interest considered in this regard emerge in preserving the privacy of religious affiliation or feeling and maintaining stability. Community by protecting national security.


First: books

Ahmed Zaki Badawi, Dictionary of Social Science Terms, Lebanon Library, Beirut, 1982.

Ahmed Fathi Sorour, Crimes Harmful to the Public Interest, 1st edition, Dar Al-Nahda Al-Arabiya, Cairo, 1963.

Anwar Muhammad Sidqi Al-Musa’idah, Criminal Liability for Economic Crimes, 1st edition, Dar Al-Thaqafa for Publishing and Distribution, Amman, 2007.

Bentham, translated by Ahmed Fathi Sorour, Fundamentals of Laws, Part 1, Cairo, no date of publication.

Jalal Tharwat, Crimes of Assault on Persons, Part 1, Dar Al-Maaref, Egypt, 1964.

Hamid Zaki, Reconciling Law and Reality, research published in the Journal of Law and Economics, Issue 2, Egypt, 1995.

Hassan Abdel Razzaq Jadoua, Economic Crimes, Ministry of Justice - Council of Justice, 1985.

Hassan Kira, Introduction to Law, Without Publishing House, 1971.

Saleh bin Hamid Al-Duwaihi, Moral Values between Islam and the West, Riyadh, 2004.

Abbas Al-Aboudi, Explanation of the Provisions of the Civil Procedure Law, Dar Al-Kutub for Printing and Publishing, Mosul, 2000.

Abdel Hay Hijazi, Introduction to the Study of Legal Sciences, Part 1, Dar Al-Fikr Al-Arabi, Cairo, 1972.

Abdel Fattah Mustafa Al-Saifi, The State’s Right to Punish, Beirut Arab University 1971.

Abdullah Mustafa, The Science of the Principles of Law, Iraqi Scientific Academy Publication, 1995.

Abdel Hadi El-Gohary, Studies in Social Development, Modern University Office, Alexandria, 1999.

Essam Afifi Abdel Basir, The Criminal Rule on Bayad, Dar Abu Al-Majd, Egypt 2007.

Ali Hussein Al-Khalaf - Dr. Sultan Al-Shawi, General Principles in the Penal Code, Dar Al-Atak for Publishing and Distribution, Egypt, no date of publication.

Majeed Al-Anbaki, The Impact of Interest in Legislation, Part 1, Al-Nahrain University, no date of publication.

Muhammad Al-Fadil, Crimes Against State Security, Part One, Third Edition, Damascus University Press, Damascus, 1965.

Muhammad Saeed Farag, Social Structure and Personality, Egyptian Book Press, Alexandria, 1980.

Muhammad Sharif Ahmed, The Theory of Interpretation of Medinan Texts, Dar Al-Nahda Al-Arabiya, Cairo, 1982.

Munther Al-Shawi, Philosophy of Law, Iraqi Scientific Academy Press, 1995.

Nawal Muhammad Omar, The Role of Religious Media in Changing Some of the Values of Rural and Urban Families, Nahdet al-Sharq Library, Cairo, 1984.

Second: Theses and messages

Fares Hamid Abdul Karim Al-Ajrash Al-Zubaidi, The Legal Standard, Master’s Thesis, College of Law - University of Baghdad 2002.

Muhammad Mardan Ali Muhammad al-Bayati, The Considerable Interest in Criminalization, doctoral thesis, University of Mosul - College of Law, 2002.

Third: Research

Hassanein Ibrahim Saleh, The Idea of Interest in the Penal Code, research published in the National Criminal Journal, Volume (17), Issue 2, National Center for Social and Criminal Research, Cairo, 1974.

Adel Azar, The Concept of Legal Interest, Criminal Journal, Third Issue, 1972.

Muhammad Shata Abu Saad, The discretionary power of the civil judge in light of flexible and rigid legal standards and rules, research published in the Modern Egypt Magazine, second issue, Egypt, without date of publication.

Fourth: Foreign sources

_George Ritzer and J. Michael Ryan, The Concise Encyclopedia of Sociology, A John Wiley Sons, Ltd. , Publication, 2011.

_Margaret L. Andersen, Howard F. Taylor, Sociology: The Essentials, Seventh Edition, Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, 2013.



How to Cite

., M. H. S. A. A.-A. (2024). The philosophy of criminalizing attacks on religious values and symbols. TIKRIT UNIVERSITY JOURNAL FOR RIGHTS, 8(1), 262–279. Retrieved from