The results of international efforts prior to the 2015 Paris Agreement to confront global warming


  • Dr. Khaled Akab Hassoun . College of Rights, Tikrit University, Salahaddin, Iraq
  • Prof. Lect. Mazen Ajaj Fahd . College of Rights, Tikrit University, Salahaddin, Iraq


- Kyoto Protocol. - Global Warming. - Paris Agreement.


:  Global warming is an international issue that deserves the attention of governments, international organizations, the media, research centers and specialists because of its serious and devastating effects on societies And given the multiplicity of its environmental dimensions at the global level, especially in poor countries, which necessitates the development of an effective legal system to confront and address it at the international and regional levels, and the tendency to conclude many international agreements to reduce this phenomenon or reduce its risks and effects in order to preserve humanity and live in a healthy environment, These agreements witnessed remarkable developments that cast a shadow over the rules and provisions of international environmental law and had their results, since the Rio Agreement of 1992, through the Kyoto Agreement of 1997, and until the recent Paris Agreement of 2015.



First: books

- Dr.. Ayman Mohamed Zein, d. Nizam Barakat, North-South Dialogue and the New World Order, Deanship of Scientific Research and Graduate Studies, Yarmouk University, Jordan, 2019.

- Habib Maalouf, The Issue of Global Climate Change Between the Failures of Kyoto and Paris Expectations, Dar Al-Farabi, 1st edition, Beirut, Lebanon, 2016.

- Dr. Hans Boakhim, Climate Change, translated by Muhammad Jadid, Quds Company for Publishing and Distribution, 1st edition, Beirut, 2010

- Dr.. Tony Al-Sabbaghini, The Last Crisis, Arab House for Science, 1st edition, Beirut, 2011.

- Dr. Muhammad Wajdi Noureddine, International Protection of the Environment since the Stockholm Conference of 1979 until the Doha Conference of 2012, Zain Human Rights Publications, Beirut, 2006.

Second: Letters and treatises

- Derbal Mohamed, The Role of International Law in Environmental Protection, Ph.D. thesis submitted to the Faculty of Law and Political Sciences, University of Djilali Eliabes, Sidi Bel Abbes, Algeria, 2019.

- Adnan Moftah Omar Al-Kish, International Intervention to Confront Global Warming and Climate Change, Ph.D. Thesis, Ain Shams University, 2013.

Third - Research and Journals

- Environment and Development Magazine, December 2013 issue.

- Muhammad Mustafa Al-Khayyat, Climate Change, Divergent International Positions, International Policy Journal, Issue 178, 2010.

- Emad El-Din Adly, Towards More Adaptation to Climate Change, Environment Forum, Arab Network for Environment and Development, Issue 249, 2012.

Fourth: International documents:

- Bonn Climate Change Conference, Earth Negotiations Bulletin, Vol. 12, No. 703.

- Abstract of the Paris Climate Change Conference, Earth Negotiations Bulletin, International Institute for Sustainable Development News Service, December 13, 2015.

- Kyoto Protocol of 1997.

- Climate Change Convention, Ad Hoc Working Group on Additional Obligations of Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol, 10/1010/awg/kp/fccc.

- Paris Agreement of 2015.

- Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties of 1969.

Fifth: Reports:

- Report of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Additional Obligations of Parties Included in Annex B under the Kyoto Protocol held in December 2012, in Doha (fcc/kp/cmp/2012Lg).

-The Land Negotiations Bulletin report is available at: www.iisd.call12/enb12663a,html



How to Cite

., D. K. A. H., & ., P. L. M. A. F. (2024). The results of international efforts prior to the 2015 Paris Agreement to confront global warming. TIKRIT UNIVERSITY JOURNAL FOR RIGHTS, 8(1), 1–22. Retrieved from